LOGIN

Areas of Emphasis

Areas of Emphasis 
The candidate also selects one of the following areas of emphasis, which consists of 60 questions.

  1. Additional General Practice
  2. Contact Lenses
  3. Ocular Disease

Area of Emphasis: Additional General Practice (60 questions)

  1. Ametropia/Ophthalmic Optics (8%)
    1. Use of spectacle lenses for correction of ametropia (single vision, bifocals, PALs / advantages and disadvantages of)
    2. Dispensing techniques: fitting patients for spectacles
    3. Optical materials (e.g., advantages and disadvantages of)
    4. Optical lens designs (e.g., advantages and disadvantages of)
    5. Patient education on safety factors of eyewear and materials
  2. Contact Lenses (8%)
    1. Use of contact lenses for correction of ametropia (advantages/disadvantages, patient selection criteria)
    2. Fitting and prescribing soft spherical contact lenses
    3. Fitting and prescribing astigmatic contact lenses
    4. Fitting and prescribing multifocal contact lenses
    5. Assessment, differential diagnosis and treatment/management of CL-related complications
  3. Binocular Vision/Pediatrics/Vision Therapy (13%)
    1. Treatment and management options for anisometropia
    2. Treatment and management options for refractive amblyopia
    3. Assessment and differential diagnosis for accommodative disorders
    4. Treatment and management options for accommodative disorders
    5. Assessment and differential diagnosis for binocular vision disorders
    6. Treatment and management options for binocular vision disorders
    7. Assessment and differential diagnosis for oculo-motor anomalies (e.g., saccades, pursuits, nystagmus
    8. Assessment and differential diagnosis for visual perception disorders
  4. Anterior Segment (13%)
    1. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the episclera/sclera
    2. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the lacrimal system
    3. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the lids and/or lashes
    4. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the ocular adnexa
    5. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the cornea
    6. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the conjunctiva
    7. Indications for and/or interpretation of pachymetry
    8. Indications/contraindications and management of complications of topical meds
  5. Cataracts/Pre- and Post-operative Care (3%)
    1. Patient selection criteria (indications/contraindications)
    2. Pre- and post-operative care
  6. Posterior Segment (15%)
    1. Treatment and management options for vitreous diseases and disorders
    2. Treatment and management options for macular diseases and disorders
    3. Treatment and management options for retinal vascular diseases
    4. Treatment and management options for non-vascular chorioretinal diseases
    5. Treatment and management options for peripheral retinal diseases and disorders
    6. Indications for and/or interpretation of fundoscopy with auxiliary lenses
    7. Indications for and/or interpretation of fundoscopy with binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
    8. Indications for and/or interpretation of scleral depression
    9. Indications for and/or interpretation of retinal imaging
  7. Glaucoma (7%)
    1. Assessment, differential diagnosis, and management for glaucoma, glaucoma suspects, and ocular hypertension
    2. Indications/contraindications and management of complications of glaucoma medications
    3. Indications for and/or interpretation of imaging for glaucoma and optic nerve disease
    4. Indications for and/or interpretation of tonometry
  8. Neuro-Ophthalmic Disorders (7%)
    1. Indications for and/or interpretation of pupillary testing
    2. Indications for and/or interpretation of optic motility testing
    3. Indications for and/or interpretation of visual fields
    4. Assessment, differential diagnosis, and management of headaches (incl. migraines)
  9. Systemic Health (8%)
    1. Patient education regarding preventive health care measures (obesity, smoking cessation)
    2. Coordination of care with other health care providers/specialists of patients with systemic disease
    3. Indications for and interpretation of blood pressure measurement
    4. Managing ocular side effects of medications
    5. Patient education to patients with systemic disease with/without eye-related findings

Area of Emphasis: Contact Lenses (60 questions)

  1. Use of contact lenses for correction of ametropia (advantages/disadvantages, patient selection criteria) (10%)
  2. Fitting and prescribing soft spherical contact lenses (10%)
  3. Fitting and prescribing astigmatic contact lenses (10%)
  4. Fitting and prescribing multifocal contact lenses (10%)
  5. Fitting and prescribing rigid, gas permeable contact lenses (10%)
  6. Assessment, differential diagnosis and treatment of CL-related complications (10%)
  7. Fitting and prescribing corneal reshaping lenses (ortho-K lenses/CRT) (6%)
  8. Fitting and prescribing scleral lenses (8%)
  9. Fitting and prescribing lenses for keratoconus or other irregular corneas (8%)
  10. Indications for and interpretation of corneal topography (10%)
  11. Indications for and interpretation of wavefront assessment (8%)

Area of Emphasis: Ocular Disease (60 questions)

  1. Anterior Segment (38%)
    1. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the episclera/sclera
    2. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the uvea
    3. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the lacrimal system
    4. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the lids and/or lashes
    5. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the ocular adnexa
    6. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the orbit
    7. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the cornea
    8. Treatment and management options for diseases or disorders of the conjunctiva
    9. Indications for and/or interpretation of corneal topography
    10. Indications for and/or interpretation of anterior segment photos
    11. Indications for and/or interpretation of pachymetry
    12. Indications for and/or interpretation of corneal/anterior segment imaging with OCT, UBM Pentacam
    13. Indications for and/or interpretation of tonometry in assessment of anterior segment disease (excludes glaucoma)
    14. Indications for insertion of punctal plugs
    15. Indications for use of bandage contact lens
    16. Indications/contraindications and management of complications of topical medications
    17. Indications/contraindications and management of complications of oral medications
    18. Indications for and/or interpretation of point-of-care tests for ocular surface disease (e.g. InflammaDry, tear osmolarity)
  2. Cataracts/Pre- and Post-operative Care (6%)
    1. Patient selection criteria (indications/contraindications)
    2. Pre- and post-operative care
  3. Posterior Segment (16%)
    1. Treatment and management options for vitreous diseases and disorders
    2. Treatment and management options for macular diseases and disorders
    3. Treatment and management options for retinal vascular diseases
    4. Treatment and management options for non-vascular chorioretinal diseases
    5. Treatment and management options for peripheral retinal diseases and disorders
    6. Indications for and/or interpretation of fundoscopy with auxiliary lenses
    7. Indications for and/or interpretation of fundoscopy with BIO
    8. Indications for and/or interpretation of retinal imaging
  4. Glaucoma (12%)
    1. Assessment, differential diagnosis, and management for glaucoma, glaucoma suspects, and ocular hypertension
    2. Indications/contraindications and management of complications of glaucoma medications
    3. Indications for and/or interpretation of gonioscopy
    4. Indications for and/or interpretation of imaging for glaucoma and optic nerve disease
    5. Indications for and/or interpretation of tonometry
    6. Indications for and/or interpretation of visual fields
  5. Neuro-Ophthalmic Disorders (18%)
    1. Assessment, differential diagnosis, and management of visual pathway disorders
    2. Indications for and/or interpretation of pupillary testing
    3. Indications for and/or interpretation of ocular motility testing
    4. Assessment, differential diagnosis, and management of optic nerve diseases (excluding glaucoma)
    5. Indications for and/or interpretation of visual fields
    6. Assessment, differential diagnosis, and management of headaches (including migraines)
    7. Treatment of neuro-ophthalmic disorders
  6. Systemic Health (10%)
    1. Patient education regarding preventive health care measures (obesity, smoking cessation)
    2. Coordination of care with other health care providers/specialists of patients with systemic disease
    3. Indications for and interpretation of blood pressure measurement
    4. Managing ocular side effects of medications
    5. Patient education to patients with systemic disease with or without eye-related findings